Mr. White is a 72-year-old man, with a history of hypertension, COPD and moderate dementia, who presents with 4 days of increased confusion, nighttime restlessness, visual hallucinations, and urinary incontinence. His physical exam is unremarkable except for tachypnea, a mildly enlarged prostate, inattentiveness, and a worsening of his MMSE score from a baseline of 18 to 12 today.
Mr. White's presentation is most consistent with an acute delirium (acute change in cognition, perceptual derangement, waxing and waning consciousness, and inattention).
What is the most likely diagnosis to frequently cause acute delirium in patients with dementia?
What additional testing should you consider if any?
What are treatment options to consider with this patient?