SO245 Lessons 4 & 5 Exam

Question 1 (2.5 points)
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Plankton and phytoplankton represent the base of the oceanic food chain and produce about _______ percent of our planet's atmospheric oxygen.
Question 1 options:

a)20

b)30

c)40

d)50


Question 2 (2.5 points)
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About _______ percent of current carbon dioxide emissions are being absorbed into the planet's oceans.
Question 2 options:

a)30

b)40

c)50

d)60


Question 3 (2.5 points)
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The ozone layer contains about _______ percent of atmospheric ozone.
Question 3 options:

a)60

b)75

c)90

d)99


Question 4 (2.5 points)
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Which statement best characterizes the temperate grassland biome?
Question 4 options:

a)The rainy season lasts for six to eight months.

b)During the parched dry season, fires turn vegetation to ash.

c)This biome features perennial grasses as well as flowering plants called forbs.

d)This biome includes strands of trees separated by grasses.


Question 5 (2.5 points)
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Ecologists who study the way species interact with each other in a specified area are focused on
Question 5 options:

a)habitats.

b)communities.

c)niches.

d)biomes.


Question 6 (2.5 points)
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Where did humans first domesticate horses?
Question 6 options:

a)American high plains

b)Asian steppes

c)African veld

d)Argentine pampas


Question 7 (2.5 points)
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Disruption of the _______ cycle will have an unpredictable impact on humans due to this cycle's vital role in regulating global climate patterns.
Question 7 options:

a)nitrogen

b)carbon

c)phosphorous

d)water


Question 8 (2.5 points)
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Taiga includes the largest contiguous forests on the planet and make up about _______ percent of all of Earth's forests.
Question 8 options:

a)50

b)40

c)30

d)20


Question 9 (2.5 points)
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Which planet is in the so-called "Goldilocks zone"?
Question 9 options:

a)Earth

b)Mars

c)Jupiter

d)Venus


Question 10 (2.5 points)
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Two students are discussing causes of desertification in semi-arid locales. Allen maintains that overcultivation depletes soil of vital nutrients. Audrey argues that overgrazing strips vegetation and leads to soil erosion and deforestation. Which student is correct?
Question 10 options:

a)Both Allen and Audrey are incorrect.

b)Both Allen and Audrey are correct.

c)Only Allen is correct.

d)Only Audrey is correct.


Question 11 (2.5 points)
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The current rate of species extinction is conservatively estimated at _______ times greater than the background rate.
Question 11 options:

a)20 to 200

b)50 to 5,000

c)100 to 1,000

d)300 to 3,000


Question 12 (2.5 points)
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According to the EPA, the second most significant factor in human-caused global warming and climate change is
Question 12 options:

a)deforestation.

b)burning of fossil fuels.

c)desertification.

d)species extinction.


Question 13 (2.5 points)
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Of the four modes of species interaction, trophic interactions are associated with
Question 13 options:

a)parasitism.

b)competition.

c)mutualism.

d)predation.


Question 14 (2.5 points)
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As the Arctic permafrost melts, it releases _______ into the atmosphere.
Question 14 options:

a)nitrous oxides

b)methane

c)water vapor

d)ozone


Question 15 (2.5 points)
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Which of these is a biotic factor in an ecological system?
Question 15 options:

a)Local climate

b)Chemical properties of an environment

c)Sunlight

d)Decomposers


Question 16 (2.5 points)
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According to the course, _______ scientific experts believe there is still time to address environmental problems and change our course toward a sustainable future.
Question 16 options:

a)all

b)no

c)most

d)very few


Question 17 (2.5 points)
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When carbon dioxide is dissolved in water, it produces _______ acid.
Question 17 options:

a)carbolic

b)carbonaceous

c)carbonic

d)corrosive


Question 18 (2.5 points)
According to the course, which of these has not been linked to damage caused by UVB radiation?
Question 18 options:

a)Destruction of DNA

b)Melanoma and premature aging

c)Basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas

d)Severe sunburn


Question 19 (2.5 points)
A(n) _______ is the natural space inhabited by a particular plant or animal.
Question 19 options:

a)habitat

b)ecoregion

c)community

d)ecosystem


Question 20 (2.5 points)
Where would you find a cold desert biome?
Question 20 options:

a)Mojave

b)Sahara

c)Sahel

d)Antarctica


Question 21 (2.5 points)
_______ death rate equals total deaths per year divided by the midyear population. This figure is normally expressed as the number of deaths per 1,000 people per year.
Question 21 options:

a)Estimated

b)Projected

c)Approximate

d)Crude


Question 22 (2.5 points)
The discussion in the course regarding the experience of China during Mao Zedong's Great Leap Forward from 1959 to 1960 was meant to illustrate that
Question 22 options:

a)population growth doesn't necessarily proceed at a steady rate.

b)economic policies are critical to sustain population growth.

c)political and economic factors are irrelevant to population growth.

d)unrestrained population growth leads to political instability.


Question 23 (2.5 points)
Ehrlich's dire projections differed from those of Malthus in that he applied the principle of geometric progression to
Question 23 options:

a)vital resources like oil, copper, and top soils.

b)significant climate change variables.

c)escalating species die-off.

d)birth and death rates by social class.


Question 24 (2.5 points)
Which statement is true regarding global population growth trends?
Question 24 options:

a)Over the last 10,000 years, the human population has climbed slowly but steadily.

b)According to the U.S. Census Bureau, by the year 2010, the total human population was just short of 9 billion people.

c)According to the U.S. Census Bureau, by the year 2010, the growth rate percentage was just over 1 percent.

d)By the year 1,000 CE, Earth's total human population had nearly doubled.


Question 25 (2.5 points)
In developed countries, a fertility rate of 2.1 live births per 1000 births per year is called _______ fertility.
Question 25 options:

a)stabilized

b)replacement

c)declining

d)increasing


Question 26 (2.5 points)
Paul Ehrlich updated his early projections because his original ideas underestimated
Question 26 options:

a)immigration figures.

b)capitalist gains.

c)human resilience.

d)political instability.


Question 27 (2.5 points)
In the four-stage model of transition theory, declining death rates and continuing high birth rates are characteristic of Stage
Question 27 options:

a)1.

b)2.

c)3.

d)4.


Question 28 (2.5 points)
The _______ ratio compares the number of economically productive people within a specific population to the number of people younger than 15 and older than 64.
Question 28 options:

a)dependency

b)productivity

c)producer-consumer

d)age to productivity
Question 29 (2.5 points)
In the modern world, how many countries are believed to be in Stage 1 of demographic transition?
Question 29 options:

a)25

b)15

c)10

d)0


Question 30 (2.5 points)
_______ is the global area with the highest rate of population growth.
Question 30 options:

a)China

b)Africa

c)Canada

d)Mexico


Question 31 (2.5 points)
The proportion of males to females in a given population is referred to as the _______ ratio.
Question 31 options:

a)fertility

b)sex

c)population

d)stereotypical


Question 32 (2.5 points)
According to the course, all of the following factors are likely to be sources of social problems related to population density except
Question 32 options:

a)economics.

b)spirituality.

c)cultural factors.

d)politics.


Question 33 (2.5 points)
From the perspective of Marx and Engels, the political and economic theories of
Adam Smith, John Locke, and others are mainly a(n) _______ of the capitalist system.
Question 33 options:

a)ideological critique

b)rationalization

c)criminal indictment

d)radicalization


Question 34 (2.5 points)
Which of these statements regarding gender difference in the death rate is true?

Question 34 options:

a)Female children are more likely to die young than males.

b)Males tend to avoid employment in riskier occupations.

c)Males engage in more risk-taking behaviors than females.

d)Females experience more stress related to gender roles.


Question 35 (2.5 points)
Which stage of transition theory is usually quite brief?
Question 35 options:

a)Stage 2

b)Stage 3

c)Stage 4

d)Stage 5


Question 36 (2.5 points)
In a growing population, the rate of natural increase equals the birth rate minus the death rate plus net
Question 36 options:

a)migration.

b)averages.

c)emigration.

d)fertility.


Question 37 (2.5 points)
Biological demographers have determined that under ideal conditions, the human lifespan could average _______ years.
Question 37 options:

a)90

b)95

c)110

d)120


Question 38 (2.5 points)
In _______, death rates have declined markedly even as infant mortality rates continue as the highest in the world.
Question 38 options:

a)Pakistan

b)India

c)Afghanistan

d)Nigeria


Question 39 (2.5 points)
In the decades following World War II, the United States experienced an enormous increase in the birth rate. This is an example of _______ effects, which impact population growth.
Question 39 options:

a)temporary

b)short-term

c)period

d)misleading


Question 40 (2.5 points)
Which type of historical information about a population would not be found in an age pyramid?
Question 40 options:

a)Ethnicity

b)Fertility

c)Mortality

d)Migration

Field of study: 
Date Due: 
Friday, June 12, 2020

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SO245 Lessons 4 & 5 Exam

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